An Appraisal Of Atyap Performing Arts Of Zangon Kataf Kaduna State, Nigeria (1950 – 2013) – Complete project material


ABSTRACT

AN APPRAISAL OF ATYAP PERFORMING ARTS OF ZANGON KATAF KADUNA
STATE, NIGERIA 1950 – 2013,By Samuel Caleb.(N.C.E. Fine and Applied Arts KSCOE
Kafanchan, B.A.Fine Arts, M.A Art History A.B.U Zaria)
This study explored the activities of the Atyap performing arts, defining what they are by
name. Chapter one introduces the background history of the Atyap performing arts of
ZangonKataf Kaduna State Nigeria from 1950 – 2013. The problem of the study was that,
the Atyap performing arts have dwindled over these years and that, it is being endangered.
The aim of the study sought to establish the state of the Atyap performing arts. The
objectives of the study were to: investigate the historical evolution of the performing arts
from 1950 – 2013, to identify the existing Atyap performing arts and the instruments of
music; study the socio-cultural character of the Atyap performing arts; examine the fears of
extinction expressed by researchers on performing arts of Atyap; and categorize the Atyap
performing arts according to their various manifestations. The performing arts of the Atyap
from available records, haven undergone considerable change of recent justify this study.
The scope of this research was devoted to the existing Atyap performing arts from the
numerous traditional music and theatre arts existing from 1950 – 2013. The performing arts
are diverse in nature; they include those performed without instruments, those performed
with musical instruments, those performed theatrically and those performed poetically.
They are those performing arts found within Abin-Atyap.Chapter two focuses mainly on
the review of relevant literature which further reveals the gaps existing in the previous
studies, especially in the examination of the nature, content and context of the Atyap
performing arts of ZangonKataf, Kaduna State. The relevant reviewed literature showed
that the influences that permeated the early periods of the Atyap performers have continued
to manifest themselves in different shades and circumstances to the extent that there are
new transformations and assimilations of performances from nearby ethnic groups
bordering Atyap, Chapter three discusses the methodology, research designed of the study.
Both the historical and qualitative methods of data collection were used. Several experts
suggested the use of multiple approaches to art historical studies, and were adopted in this
work to investigate the historical evolution of the Atyap performing arts from 1950 to
2013. The population of the performing arts is those practised in Abin-Atyap. The selection
was done using the purposive sampling due to the heterogeneous settlement pattern of
Atyap. In carrying out the field work of this study, the qualitative method of investigation
was used. The interviews conducted were done based on the sampled population, using
questions that were open ended in nature. Information collected from the field was
analyzed in Chapter four and five of the study. The discussions made were done through
categorization, description and comparative analysis. Chapter four analyzed the data
collected base on specific headings. These headings include (i) early performing Arts in
Abin-Atyap (Song Guguwa, Song Zunzuo, Song Zunzom Atah, song zunzom Angurung,
Song Zunzom Akhuwoo, Song Kuku), (ii) Borrowed performances (Song Zunzom Akatam,
Song Samba, Song Bori, Song B.B, Song Akpat (Hausa praise singers), (iii) Recent
performances (Song Din-vag) and Song Ashong. Chapter five pulled together some
assertions on the extinction of the Atyap Performing arts and discussed them through
viii
intrinsic deductions from the art forms and performances seen in the different celebrations.
The findings of this study established that some performances are actually going into
extinction, while most performances are undergoing refinement due to acculturation. Over
the years, there has been multiplication of adopted Atyap performing arts stemming from
youths, adults, and women groups. Chapter six contains a summarized overview of the
entire study. The recommendations of this study states that, most of the existing
performing arts needs sustenance. Schools were recommended to adopt some performing
arts for extra-curricular activities. Churches in the land were encouraged to adopt some of
the performing arts with some refinements for their praise, worship session.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Fly Leaf ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii
DECLARATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………… vi
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
Maps ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xv
1. Map of Nigeria Showing Kaduna State ………………………………………………………….. xv
2. Map of Kaduna State Showing Zangon Kataflocal Government Area ………………. xvi
3. Map of Zangon Kataf Local Government Area Showing Abin – Atyap ……………. xvii
List of Table ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xviii
List of Plates ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. xix
List of Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………. xxiv
Operational Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………………………….. xxv
CHAPTER ONE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Introduction and Background of the study ……………………………………………………………… 1
x
Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Aim and Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Justification for the study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Significance of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Scope of the study ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Limitation of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
CHAPTER TWO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
The Atyap ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Court Art ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Akursag ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Guguwa ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Zunzu …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
Kuku Dance ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Samba Dance ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Zunzom Akatam …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
xi
CHAPTER THREE ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE …………………………………………. 30
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Qualitative method ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Historical method ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
Survey Method …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
Research Instruments ………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
Oral Interview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Questionnaire ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
Field Trip ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
Sources of Data ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
Research Population and Sample ………………………………………………………………………… 37
Categorization Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………. 38
CHAPTER FOUR ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………….. 40
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
1. Early Performing Arts of the Atyap ……………………………………………………………….. 41
Song Guguwa ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
Definition …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
xii
Historical Analysis of Song Guguwa ……………………………………………………………….. 43
The Nature of Guguwa Music …………………………………………………………………………. 45
Functional significance of the guguwa andits accompaniments …………………………… 52
2. SONG ZUNZU ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
Historical analysis of Song Zunzu ……………………………………………………………………. 59
The nature and preparation of the Zunzu …………………………………………………………… 64
3. Song Zunzom Atah ……………………………………………………………………………………… 66
The nature of the Song Zunzom Atah ……………………………………………………………….. 68
Historical analysis of Song Zunzom Ataah ………………………………………………………… 69
4. Song Zunzom Angurung ……………………………………………………………………………… 74
Definition/nature …………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
5. SONG ZUNZOM AKHUOO ……………………………………………………………………….. 76
Definition …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
The nature and preparation of Zunzom Akhuoo …………………………………………………. 76
6. Song Kuku ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
Definition …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
Description of Kuku performance ……………………………………………………………………. 79
The Nature of Kuku Music ……………………………………………………………………………… 80
7. Song Samba ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
xiii
Definition …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Organizational Structure and nature of Song Samba ………………………………………….. 87
The Adopted Performing Arts of Atyap ……………………………………………………………….. 91
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
1. Song Zunzom Akatam ……………………………………………………………………………….. 92
Definition …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
Historical Analasis of Zunzom Akatam …………………………………………………………….. 93
Preparation and functionality of the Zunzom Akatam …………………………………………. 95
2. Song B.B: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
3. Song Ashuyang Akpat: Hausa Praise Singers ……………………………………………….. 103
The Current Vogue of Performing Arts ……………………………………………………………… 108
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
1. Song Talien: ( Street Dance) …………………………………………………………………… 109
CHAPTER FIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
ANALYSIS OF ATYAP PERFORMING ARTS AND DISCUSSION …………………. 117
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
Analyses of the current transformations of the Atyap performing arts: …………………… 117
Findings …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
CHAPTER SIX ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
xiv
SUMMARY OF THE STUDY, CONCLUSIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS ….. 144
Summary of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 144
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction and Background of the study
The study “An Appraisal of Atyap Performing Arts of Zangon Kataf Kaduna State,
Nigeria” is a research on the past and present performing culture of the Atyap of Zangon
Kataf Local government; with special interest on the art of theshow. The study traced the
history of the Atyap performing arts from 1950 – 2013. The name Kataf as used in many
writings is used in this study as “Atyap”. Anywhere the name is used as Kataf it means the
same as Atyap. This is necessary for the reader of this work to understand the successive
change of the name of the ethnic group from Atyap to Kataf in the literature review in this
work. AtyapcommunityOnline (2010) states that Atyap,
Also known as Kataf by Hausa, are an ethnic group that occupy part of the Zangon-
Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. They speak Tyap
language, one of the West Plateau languages. They occupy the south east portion of
present day Southern Kaduna, in Zangon Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna
state. The ethnic groups in this area speak a common language, and display so
much uniformity of cultural traits that the groups may almost be regarded as
constituting a homogeneous language with the Oegorok, Sholio, Chechaat,
Fantswam and Jju. Thus, each division of the group is seen by other ethnic groups
as constituting an ethnic group. However, the ethnic groups have no political
uniformity other than a continuous ancestral and social intercourse.
The ethnic groups in Southern Kaduna cannot be said to have no political, ancestrial and
socialintercourse, history had it that most of the ethnic groups like Oegorok, Ham, Asholio
left the north-east to their present abode, that some of the ethnic groups arrived earlier than
the other, which they called early arrival while others arrived later just as the Rohogo and
2
Minyam story of the Atyap. Other ethnic groups were believed to have come out from
others as a result of hunting expendition like the Attakar and Bajju who are believed to
have come out of Atyap. This was why the polity of the region was similar. The language
is some what similar and culture. The Atyap, according to Achi (1981:28),
… occupy the central area of the lower valley of the Niger and Benue rivers in the
South- eastern part of Kaduna State. The area is bordered to the north by the
Binawa,Rimbu, Kiballo and Surubu speaking peoples; to the north – east by the
Kurama, to the east by the Chawai people and the Kaduna River; to the south-east
by the Chechaat and Maroa, to the South by the Oegrok people, and to the southwest
by Bajju, Ham, Angan and Bakulu peoples.
In the quest to live and prosper to reports, according to Magaji (1994), the Atyap engaged
in several ceremonial activities; some of such were social activities during the dry season
believed to be the resting period. This necessitated the production of various musical
instruments used by various age grades, the young, the middle aged, the old, the palace
praise singers and the religious Abwai Cult for diverse cultural events. During such
celebrations, the Atyap would often use horses which included caravabration. Atyap
produced saddles for horses to be used by young boys and men who heralded every
celebration. The celebrations led to the production of custumes, instruments used during
performances.
Statement of the Problem
The Atyap, according to oral history, had religious, political and socio-cultural
performances like most pre- 20th Century African communities (Dauke, 2004:19-26). At a
particular time, the performing arts were said to have metamorphosed into a culture. Each
3
clan was said to be identified with at least one form of performance or the other. This was
necessitated by the environmental and human challenges frequently faced in the region,
some of which were natural or man made. Of recenthowever, there seemsto be a sharp
decline in the art of music and performances.
Three researches on the art of the Atyap, to the knowledge of the researcher, have
shown concern about it. They are: “Form and Functions of Art among the Kataf of Kaduna
State”, by Nkom (1987), “Wood Carving in Atyap land” by Samaila (1994), and “The
Social Function of Art in Atyap New Year Festival” by Samaila (1999). Nkom (1987:117-
118) establishes that,
The Kataf society is blessed with a variety of art and crafts, most of which are
functional and performing arts. The artists generally are of age…between the ages
of thirty (30) upwards. The youths do not have time for any art work in Kataf
society; they feel it is old fashion. From the numerous art forms that exist in Kataf,
a good number of them are no longer in public view.
Samaila (1999:5) similarly contends that, the vast coverage of performing arts of the Atyap
was fast in the decline in recent years. The fascinating art productsof costume, wood
carvings, and hand crafts are going into extinction, and there seems to be nothing done to
revive their functional significance.Thus thedecline and fears ofextinction of performing
arts in Abin-Atyapis a problem which needed to be solved.
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim was to appraise the present state of the Atyap performing arts. The objectives
of the study are to:
Investigate the historical evolution of the performing arts of Atyapfrom 1950 – 2013.
4
Identify the existing Atyap performing arts and the instruments of music.
Find out whether Atyapperforming arts still plays in culture it used to play from 1950 to
2013
Study the socio-cultural character of the Atyap performing arts.
Examine the fears of extinction expressed by researchers on performing arts of Atyap.
Categorize the Atyap performing artsaccording to their various manifestations.
Justification for the study
Notable performing art forms exist in Atyap which have not enjoyed scholarly
attention as the Nok terra cottas do for instance. Oral record shows that Atyap art has
suffered considerable neglect from scholars who have continued to study the Nok art with
no allusion to the study of art of near by ethnic groups who had at one time or the other
made claims to the Nok art. Recent finds of the Nok reveal that the ceramic tradition of the
Atyap could be connected to Nok art. Moreso, that the performing artsof the Atyap have
suffered considerable change of recent, justifies this study.
Significance of the study
This research “An appraisal of Atyap Performance arts of Zangon Kataf Kaduna
State” is significant, first for bringing to light a new phase to the study of the art in the
midst of other art forms among the Southern Kaduna extraction. Second, this research
encourages better appreciation of the performing arts of the Atyap from the past to the
present. Third, this research records the various contributions made by the local artistes to
5
the development of arts in Abin-Atyap. Fourth, the findings and recommendations that
emerge from this research contributes significantly to the development of literary and
historical study of the performing arts of the Atyap in particular, and further studies of
Southern Kaduna performing arts in general.
Scope of the study
The scope of this research was devoted to the existing Atyap performing arts from
the numerous traditional music and theatre arts existing from 1950 – 2013. The performing
arts are diverse in nature; they include those performed without instruments, those
performed with musical instruments, and those performed theatrically and poetically. The
scope of the study is limited to performing arts found within Abin-Atyap.
Limitation of the Study
This study encountered the limitation of the inability to get pictures of performing arts of
the 1950s to 1970s. The writer visited the Agwatyap’s Palace at Atag Njei Zangon Kataf to
collect pictures with no success, and several visits were made to the national archieve, the
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna, the Ministry of information and Arewa
House with no older photographs of 1950 – 1970s collected. For example, the Ministry of
information had many pictures of eminent personalities in Nigeria with only few durbar
pictures to show as the only recorded performing art, which had no relevance to this study.
Also, the older form of costumes of Atyap performing arts was not seen even with the
several attempts by reseach assistants to help search for older pictures to no avail.
6
Conceptual Framework
In considering the effective methods adopted by researchers in the visual arts, Sullivan
(2005) in Jari (2007:38-39) observes that in recent years, several specialists published texts
that deal with the topic of visual research and related approaches to inquiry. Generally,
there are three strategies employed by Jari: (i) Approaches that build on discipline-based
research that have a tradition of using visual means of gathering and interpreting data.
Such studies draw on areas such as sociology, anthropology, and cultural studies; (ii) A
discipline approach that draws on areas of visual arts such as art history, art theory, and
criticism. The research traditions are based on historical inquiry, literary-based
interpretative strategies, and post modern critical perspectives. The historical inquiry
answers questions like when were the art works made? What were the drives which
informed the production of the art works? How was the art being preserved through the
ages under the study? (iii) Art-based educational inquiry. Those who promote this
approach see the arts as comprising a set of practices that help broaden the way people
understand things, and thus can be used to expand how information is gathered and
represented. Also, several authors admit that many researches favour the use of a
combination of different methods. After listing eight different methods of social research,
Imoisili (1996) in Jari (2007:39) for instance, concludes that in practice, an average
researcher is likely to use a combination of methodologies.
In searching into the art of Africa, Willett (1975:9-10) identifies two types of research
methodologies, the primary and secondary studies. The primary study has to do with
the researcher going into the field to see and collect data from studios and from the
7
custodians of the arts. This helps in keeping track with the ever changing nature of society.
The secondary study is the compilation of literature on the field of study, much of which is
more valuable for its illustrations and rich historical documentation.
Nkom (1987:85) used survey method in her study “Form and Functions of Art among the
Kataf of Kaduna State”. Agya (1994:1) in his survey of the history of the Kadara people
used the survey method. Operationally, survey can be divided into any number of
subcategories, depending on the basis and purpose of the classification. Along a different
continuum, survey can be classified according to the instruments and techniques used, for
example questionnaires, interviews, observation. Jari (2007:41) concludes that more recent
studies on African art have been accompanied by huge exhibitions sponsored by corporate
organizations. The catalogues of such exhibitions contain texts usually on topical issues
contributed by many and varied scholars in the field. This study adopts Jari’s suggestion to
the use of a multiple-dimensional approach to research.
8

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