EFFECTS OF JOB STRESS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE – complete project material



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CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.0 Background of the Study

Stress is a common element in any kind of job and persons have to face it in almost every walk of life. Stress has been defined in different ways over the years. According to Robbins and Sanghi (2006) “A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints, or demand related to what he or she desire and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.

Stress is an increasing problems in organization and often causes adverse effectors on performance.

According to Kahm and Quinn (1970) “stress is the outcome of facet of the assigned work role that cause harmful effect for individual. Occupation stress is considered as harmful factor of the work environment. it also has  unpleasant effect on health of an individual as David (1998) contributed, it can be labeled as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirement of the job do not match the capability, resources, or need of the workers. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury.

According to International Labour Organization (ILO) 1986 it is recognized world-wide as major challenge to individual mental and physical health, and organizational health. Although stress include both good and bad. Robbins and Sanghi (2006) also contributed stress is typically discussed in a negative Contex; it also has a positive value. It is an opportunity when offers a potential gain. Rubina et al, (2008) contributed of the same stress is not always negative harmful and indeed, the absence of stress is death.

The work place of the 21th century is a fast paced, dynamic highly stimulating environment which brings a large number of benefit and opportunities to those who work within it. Theever-changing demands of the working world can increase levels of stress, especially for those who are consistently working under pressure such as Nigerian workers, while pressure has its positive side in raising performance, if such pressure becomes excessive it can lead to stress which has negative consequences(Santiago 2003).

According to the Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary 6th edition stress could among other things refers to pressure, tension or worries arising from problematic situations is an individual’s life. Where the incidence of such stress is traceable to a job or work situation; it is known as job stress (Narayanan et al, 1999). He further observe job stress could in fact be identified with almost any aspect of a job or work situation such as extreme of heat, noise and light or too much or too little responsibility e.t.c.

According to Irene( 2005)  job stress is a pattern of reactions that occurs when worker presented with work demands that are not matched  to their knowledge, skills or abilities and which challenges their ability to cope. It is evident from this Irene’s definition that job stress is mostly associated with under-employment.

Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern life style. The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions starting from an artist to a surgeon or a commercial pilot to sales executive, with change comes- stress, in evitable.

In most cases, job stress is attributed to negative situation such as a formal reprimand by one’s superior for the poor performances could also bring about job stress, such as job promotion and transfer to another location, job stress has attracted considerable attention in recent times especially within the context or organization behavior(Kazini  et al 2008, Shahu and Cole 2008; Nilifar et al 2009). Most research finding suggest that when an individual comes under stress, his cognitive performance and decision making may be adversely affected.

Kazini et al (2008) investigated the effect of job stress on employee’s productivity and found that there is a negative relationship between job stress and job productivity.

Shahu and Gole (2008), inquired if there was any relationship between job performance, job satisfaction and job stress and found that higher stress levels are related to lower performance, Sabir  and Helge (2003), noted that the major negative effects on workers working and personal lives.

Santiago 2003, examine the negative effect of internal stress on police performance and found that the negative stress that often results from organizational setting through poor management can be debilitating, there is evidence to suggest that, there are ways in which an organization can help to reduce instance of job stress, or better manage the issue when it arise. Effective people management good two-way communication between employers and employees, suitable working environment and effective work. Organizations are just some of the factor which can have an impact. However, there is the need to examine critically the nature and effect of job stress in Evans Nigeria Plc before suggesting, ways by which the management could deals with it. This is the main thrust of this study.

1.1   Statement of the Problem

For most people, work is significant and meaningful feature or life with the Majority  of them spending around 25% of their adult lives working while work can provides people with structure, purpose, satisfaction, self-esteem and spending power the workplace. Can also be a setting of stress, while stresses can be triggered by sudden, unexpected pressure, it is often the result of a combination of stressful factors which accumulate overtime. Some people can become so used to the symptoms of excessive stress that goes unnoticed to their detriment. Most job stress and whether you feel you have power (Jungwea, 2007). Some people are affected more than others so what is stressful for one person may not be stressful for another. It can depend on your personality type on how you have learned to respond to pressure.

EFFECTS OF JOB STRESS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE


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