Issues and Challenges in the Execution of Public Sector Housing Projects in Nigeria
Earlier studies investigating public sector housing Nigeria have not explicitly considered the level of implementation of housing projects despite the facts that housing policies dictate the nature of development of housing in the country. This research work therefore examines the various issues involved in public sector housing programmes in Nigeria. A detailed literature review on the existing housing policies and programmes in Nigeria was carried out. This was done with a view to determining the level of implementation of the housing policies, identifying the various problems militating against the achievement of the goals of public sector housing projects and suggesting possible recommendations towards addressing the problems.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Housing is a crucial basic need of every human being just as food and clothing (Aribigbola, 2006:53). It is very fundamental to the welfare, survival and health of man (Fadamiro et al, 2004). Hence, housing is one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and his place in the society. The location and type of housing can determine or affect the status of man in the society. Kehinde (2010) noted that shelter is central to the existence of man. He submitted further that housing involves access to land, shelter and the necessary amenities to make the shelter functional, convenient, aesthetically pleasing, safe and hygienic. Hence, unsanitary, unhygienic, unsafe and inadequate housing can affect the security, physical health and privacy of man. Invariably, the performance of the housing sector is one of the yardsticks by which the health of a nation is measured (see Amdii, 1993; Angel, 2000; Blunt and Dawling, 2006; Charles, 2003; and Sulyman, 2000).
The World Health Organisation (1961) stated that a good house should have the following items:
A good roof to keep out the rain
Good walls and doors to protect against bad weather and to keep out animals.
Sunshades all around the house to protect it from direct sunlight in hot weather.
Wire nettings at windows and doors to keep out insects like house flies and mosquitoes.
In essence, housing quality can be judged from the physical appearance of the buildings, facilities provided, quality of wall used in the building construction, eminence of the roofing materials, condition of other structural components of the house, and the environmental condition of the house. Hence, the inadequacy of housing in terms of quality and quantity results in poor standard of the environment. Mandelker and Motgomery (1973) described housing as a product and a process. As a product, housing refers to the end product of the construction work in terms of the structure, design, space, lighting, heating, sanitary facilities, as well as other conveniences. On the other hand, as a process, housing involves the construction, neighbourhood planning, urban and regional planning, as well as environmental management. It also includes construction, rehabilitation, maintenance and re-modeling. Consequently, the housing stock of a nation is affected by all these factors. Agbola (1998) pointed out that the process of housing delivery involves the production of new housing, renovation of existing units and the dispersal of both new and existing housing to those people that demand for it. It is in the light of the above assertions that the study examines the issues and challenges in the execution of public sector housing projects in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Housing problem is peculiar to both rich and poor nations as well as developed and developing countries. Certain problems are associated with housing worldwide. They include shortage of housing (qualitatively and quantitatively), homelessness, government shortsightedness about the needs of the people, access to building land, house cost in relation to specification and space standard, as well as high interest rate of home loans. The reasons for shortage of housing in Nigeria include poverty, high rate of urbanization, high cost of building materials, as well as rudimentary technology of building. Kabir (2004) posited that although the federal and some state government intervened by providing mass housing, only the rich and the privileged can afford it. He submitted that the intervention of government include the formation of Federal Housing Authority, the establishment of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria, as well as the creation of the Ministry of Housing, Urban Development and Environment. Nevertheless, he opined that in spite of government’s effort to tackle the housing problems, the Nigerian housing situation is still in crisis, and sustainable housing delivery has been seriously hampered.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
This study is aimed at examining the role of public housing projects in Lagos State using Ikeja, as the case study. The specific objectives are;
- to identify the problems associated to the successful execution of public housing projects in the study area
- to examine the various interventions of government on sustainable housing provision in the study area
- to determine the level of implementation of the housing policies in Nigeria
- to critically assess the extent to which the government has recorded success in housing delivery in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The information of this research work shall be collected through the sources of data which are primary and secondary data. The secondary source was collected from available literature and past work on the subject which include published and unpublished materials like textbooks paper delivered during seminars and other relevant publications. Primary data will be gathered through administering questionnaire, all data gather shall be analysed through simple statistical made by converting the frequency into percentage.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In order to generate meaningful result, a study of this nature needs to be carried out in various locations in Nigeria. As earlier pointed out by Ajayi (1990), that the wider the scope of a study, the more generalizable the conclusions derived from the study. Given time frame scheduled for the study and researcher’s financial constraints, the study shall be restricted to Ikeja only. This is to enable easy management of data generated for thorough analysis and inferences. Ikeja is the economic nerve Centre of Lagos State, this study will focus on Estate Surveyors and Valuers in the study area.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study shall be of important to the general public as they will find this study useful, it will open their eyes as to the reasons why various housing policies in Nigeria has failed due to one reason or the other.
It shall be of great benefit to the professionals in the building industry especially Estate Surveyors and Valuers as it will enable them work more on advocating the need for sustainable housing development by the government to the masses.
Students and researchers will find this study useful as it will serve as pedestal on which the success of their further research would stand.
Meanwhile, this study thus seeks to fill this gap that exists in literature and also contribute immensely to the existing body of literature regarding the area of public sector housing in Nigeria.
1.7 LIMITATION TO STUDY
In a study of this nature, one is bound to encounter series of problems in getting the required data that will meet up with the expected standard of course, the research include the use of both the primary and secondary data and however, there were some problem encountered. These include financial and time constraints. Other notable problems that cannot over employed include high cost of transportation incurred while collection of data.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.8.1 PUBLIC HOUSING: Public housing refers to a form of housing provision, which emphasizes the role of the government and its agencies in helping to provide housing, particularly for the poor, low-income and more vulnerable groups in the society. One of the major responses to housing challenge all over the world has been public housing and it has taken varied forms in different geographical contexts. Other descriptive terms are often used in its place such as social housing, state housing, state-sponsored housing, welfare housing, non-profit housing, low-cost housing, affordable housing, and mass housing (Van Vilet, 1990)
1.8.2 PUBLIC SECTOR: The public sector is the part of the economy concerned with providing various governmental services. The composition of the public sector varies by country, but in most countries the public sector includes such services as the military, police, infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, etc.), public transit, public education, along with health care and those working for the government itself, such as elected officials. The public sector might provide services that a non-payer cannot be excluded from (such as street lighting), services which benefit all of society rather than just the individual who uses the service.
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