THE RATE OF BLEACHING OF PALM OIL WHITE COAL – Complete project material


ABSTRACT

This project was carried using activated local form local corporation Enugu, and the rate of bleaching of palm oil using spectrophotometer by measuring the absorbance. It was also performed to check the suitability of local as a bleaching agent for palm oil.

The local from local corporation Enugu was collected and activated with acid (H2S04) before being used for the bleaching process. The bleaching effects of the activated local was compared to that of the unactivated local.

From the results obtained, it was observed that whereas the weight engage of local was used, the average percentage colour reduction of palm oil.

Therefore, the optimum amount of local for bleaching was found to be 10 weight %

It was equally observed that as the temperature increased, the percentage colour reduction of the oil increases. Besides it was equally noticed that the smaller the fastide size of the local sample, the higher the effect of on the oil and the higher the percentage colour reduction.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION REVIEW

SCOPE

CHAPTER TWO 2.0              LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       HISTORY OF PALM OIL

2.2              CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL

2.3              PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL

2.4              CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PALM OIL

2.5              CATROTENES

2.51          FATTY ACIDS

2.71          NEUTRALIZATION

2.72          BLEACHING

2.73          CHEMICAL BLEACHING

2.741         AERATION BLEACHING

2.742         SOLVENT / ADSORPTION BLEACHING

2.743         PREVENTING MEASURES OF PALM OIL

2.6              USES OF PALM OIL KERNEL AND

PALM KERNEL MEAL

CHAPTER THREE

3.1              COAL AND ITS PRICING

3.2              CHARACTERISTIC OF COAL

3.3              TYPES OF COAL

3.4              CLASSIFICATION OF COAL

LOW RANK COAL

HIGHER  RANK COAL

3.5              PROPERTIES RANK COAL

3.51          PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

3.52          CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE

4.1              MATERIALS

4.2              BLEACHING APPARATUS

4.3              COAL ACTIVATION

4.4              TREATMENT OF PALM OIL

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

5.1       EFFECTIVE OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING

PERCENTAGE OF COAL BTY EFFECT FOR BLEACHING

EFFECT OF PARTICLES SIZE OR COLOUR REDUCTION

CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SAMPLE

CHAPTER SIX 6.1              DISCUSSION

6.2              CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION

6.3              REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

THE RATE OF BLEACHING OF PALM OIL WITH COAL

1.1              INTRODUCTION

Nigerian is based with abundant natural and mineral resources of which local mineral is not an exception some of these deposits or resources already being aimed for the process known as adsorption. In this process, there is condensation of the molecules of the fluid on the face surface of the solid or liquid called the adsorbent.

Inspite of the fact that there are many local deposits in the country, local oil processing companies firefer to use an imported brand of local, clay, fillers earth, for the oil bleaching. But due to the lost and difficulties of importation of these industrial inputs and the structural adjustment programme (SAP) of the federal ministry government, industries involved in soap production had to change from the importation of refined oil or tallow to local available substitutes.

As a result of the exorbitant lost involved in the used of these foreign bleaching earths, researchers have resorted to finding a cost effective and safe bleaching agent which leads to the discovery of local, fillers earth local clay.

Some of these processes used in palm oil refining are bleaching and deodorization the former being the most important the bleaching of red palm oil is the removal of the carotone figment found in the structure of oil. This is done by using local as an absorber and suitable high temperature at about 95-1040f. the result is a colourless oil which serves the same purpose as the follow after been deodorized.

Oil is insoluble in water and exhibits surface properties such as increase of surface tension with temperature. In general fats are referred to as glycercedes of unsaturated fatty acids.

This research project was therefore designed to investigate the potentials of local deposits in Nigeria for the bleaching of palm oil.

1.2       SCOPE

The objectives of this project is to determine or investigate the efficiency of using activated local for the adsorption of carotene content of the palm oil. It is also introduced to study the effects of particle size percentage by weight of local sample etc on the adsorption process.

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