Wound healing is a natural process that enables tissue repair after an injury while inflammation
is a pathophysiological response of living tissue to injuries. To shorten the duration and
minimize associated complications of wounds, wounds are treated with medications. Currently
there is a growing interest in the use of traditional wound dressing agents such as plant extracts.
One plant used traditionally in wound treatment is Ceiba pentendra. In view of its use in wound
care, we investigated the wound healing activities of whole extract and fractions of Ceiba
pentendra extract using excision and incision wound models while the Anti-inflammatory
activities of the whole extract and fractions was investigated using paw edema and cotton pellets
model. Excision wounds were created, and treated with ointments prepared from Ceiba
pentendra, incision wounds were also created in rats with both treated topically with preparations
of extract and fractions with the wound healing activities of ointment assessed by rates of wound
contraction and epithelialization. Anti-inflammatory activities were assessed by treating with
extract and fractions orally. Ceiba pentendra ointments shows significantly (p < 0.05)
accelerated wound healing with CPE-45% ointment having the highest percentage wound
contraction and rate of epithelialization, with wound healing effects being seen from day 4
(20.30%) with total healing occurring at day 20 (100%). In excision wound healing activities
involving the fractions. All fractions showed significantly (p<0.05) accelerated wound healing,
with HXCP-30% being the most active with wound healing effects seen at day 4 (22.91%) and
total healing occurring at the 16th day (100%).Wound breaking strengths in incision wound
models involving the extract, significant (p<0.05) was seen at CPE-45% with other doses
showing a non-significant effects. In incision wound model involving fractions the wound
breaking strength showed significant with HXCP-30% and BNCP-30%. Anti-inflammatory
effects using cotton-pellets showed that granuloma tissues formed in the extract treated groups
were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group, the significant was seen with
CPE-200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effects using cotton-pellets showed that
granuloma tissues formed in the fractions treated groups were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than
those of the control group, the significant was seen with CPE-200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The
extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory activities after 2 h with maximum percentage
inhibition of 60.00% seen at the sixth hour at 400 mg/kg dose level. Nevertheless inhibition was
still observed at six hours after administration at all dose level. In paw oedema model involving
various fractions, a significant inhibition (P<0.05) was seen with butanol fraction at all dose
levels, with percentage inhibition of 13.68% occurring at 1 h for BNCP-200 mg/kg and
percentage inhibition of 31.25%, at the fifth h for BNCP-100 mg/kg. There was a dose dependent
inhibition for the hexane fractions; hence inhibition was seen at 200 mg/kg at the fourth hour
with percentage inhibition of 31.25%, while no effect was seen with HXCP-100 mg/kg. The
ethylacetate fraction also showed significant inhibition at all dose level starting at the third hour
for EACP-100 mg/kg with percentage inhibition of 21.05% and the fourth hour for EACP-200
mg/kg with percentage of 22.22%. Maximum percentage inhibition was seen of 46.15% was
seen at HXCP- 200 mg/kg, EACP-100 mg/kg and BNCP-200 mg/kg. The results obtained
showed that Ceiba pentendra has good wound healing and antibacterial activities. These findings
validate the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of wounds.
A wound refers to an injury to the skin or underlying tissues or organs (Agyare et al., 2013).
Dermal wounds are often caused by surgery, trauma, and chemicals or as a result of diseases
(Raina et al., 2008; Agyare et al., 2013). Intentionally created dermal wounds can be incisional,
whereby the wound is brought about by surgically cutting into the skin with a scalpel or excision
wound created when a part of the skin is cut off (Waldron and Trevor, 1993). The process of tissue
repair after an insult to the tissue (wound) is called ‘wound healing’ (Nguyen et al., 2009). Wound
healing is an intricate process in which usually the skin repairs itself. The process involves four
overlapping phases: haemostasis (ceasation of bleeding), inflammation, proliferation, and
remodeling (Nguyen et al., 2009; Pandith et al., 2013). Inflammation is a pathophysiological
response of living tissue to injuries that leads to the local accumulation of plasmic fluid and blood
cells. The complex events and mediators involved in the inflammatory reaction can induce,
maintain or aggravate many diseases (Shukla et al., 2010). However, studies have been continuing
on inflammatory diseases and the side effects of currently available anti-inflammatory drugs pose
a major problem during their clinical uses. Therefore development of newer and more substantial
anti-inflammatory drugs with lesser side effects is necessary (Shukla et al., 2010).
A major problem with wounds is the high risk of infection; hence, if an agent active against these
microorganisms causing the infection is used in the healing process, it will then help to reduce the
risk of infection and the overall time for wound healing can be reduced significantly
(Irvine, 1961). Bacteria colonize wounds within 48 h after injury and bacteria such
as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp may cause infection
and this may prolong inflammatory phase of wound healing (Irvine, 1961).
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