This study was conducted to examine the availability and utilization of instructional materials in primary schools in Wamakko Local Government Area in Sokoto State. This study therefore, used descriptive survey to investigate the availability of instructional materials. The population for the study was 881 and sample size was 285 based on Research Advisor (2013) table of determining sample size. The data was collected through the use of AUIMQ (Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials Questionnaire). The data collected was analyzed using frequency and percentages. The study revealed that there were no adequate instructional materials in the schools and the few available ones are not mostly put to use because of teachers inability to operate them or their ignorance to utilize the materials. This research study found that teaching without instructional materials is ineffective and therefore teachers should try to utilize the available instructional materials for effective teachings and learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents v
List of tables viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 4
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the study 5
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework 8
2.2 Instructional Materials in Teaching and Learning 12
2.3 Classification of Instructional Materials 16
2.4 Utilization of Instructional Materials 19
2.5 Problems of the use of Instructional Materials in primary Schools 23
2.6 Summary of Literature Review and Uniqueness of the Study 24
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Population of the Study 26
3.3 Sample size and sampling techniques 27
3.3.1 Sample size 27
3.3.2 Sampling technique 27
3.4 Instruments 27
3.5 Validity of the Instruments 28
3.6 Reliability of the Instruments 28
3.7 Method of Data Collection 29
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 29
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Research Question One 31
4.2 Research Question Two 32
4.3 Research Question Three 33
4.4 Research Question Four 34
4.5 Summary of the Finding 35
1.1 Background to the Study
The idea of using materials and equipments to enhance effectiveness in the instructional process is as old as mankind, the wise teacher will always use equipment or aids in form of instructional materials to help the learners understand and learn better. The unavailability of instructional materials in our primary schools and the little or no use of the available ones has impacted on the performance of children at the primary level.
In the recent years, there has been discussions and debates on the falling standard of education. The blame has been shifted from one education variable to another. Teachers, parents and pupils share the blame, ministries of education are often to blamed from the deteriorating condition in schools. It is with this background in mind that the researchers undertook the research on accessibility and the utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Primary Schools.
Instructional materials are doubtlessly useful tools hence when applied effectively by a teacher help to enrich his teaching and stimulate in his student the desire to learn. Instructional materials, however do not achieve any of the attributed value on their own, their usefulness depends on what the teacher makes out of them. Intelligent handling of these materials in classroom is necessary. For effective utilization of instructional materials teachers must understand how to use and control instructional materials. Unless the classroom teacher uses these devices and directs the pupils attention to what they should look for, the pupils will not learn as much as intended form the devices.
To illustrate ideas, demonstrate abstract ideas and processes and show relationship of ideas in developing sequence requires an intelligent application of instructional materials. It is of almost importance, for the teacher to be at home with the limitation of the chosen materials so as to facilitate its effective utilization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As it is established that instructional material can enhance effective teaching and learning in our schools, it is not out of place to assessment their
availability and utilization in the promotion of effective and efficient teaching and learning. It is against this fact that the current study assessed the availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Area Primary Schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Generally the study aimed at assessing, availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Primary Schools. Specifically the study has the following objectives;
i) To identify the availability instructional material in Wamakko Primary Schools.
ii) To examine if the available of instructional materials are adequately used in Wamakko Primary Schools.
iii) To determine how often the available instructional material are put to use in Wamakko Primary Schools.
iv) To examine the problems hindering the effective utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Primary Schools.
1.4 Research Questions
To facilitate investigation of the problem of this study the following research questions were raised;
1. What are the available instructional materials for teaching and learning in Primary Schools in Wamakko Local Government Area?
2. Are the available instructional materials adequately used?
3. How often are the available instructional materials put to use?
4. What are the problems that hinder the effective utilization of the available instructional materials?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study provides a channel for determining the situation about the availability and utilization of instructional materials in our schools. It is anticipated that the finding could go along way in helping stakeholders, educational administrators, manager and educational planners in Wamakko Local Government Area of Sokoto State and Federal at large to improve their service to the primary schools. It would also make them to understand various problem affecting the utilization of instructional materials and make necessary
corrections as the future of our young children depends on the background we are able to provide for them and its own this background that they are going to be developed.
If the suggestions and recommendations proffered by the end of this research are adopted, teachers and learners would greatly and positively benefit. This could be possible when students’ need, capabilities, special interests, motivation and the style of teaching/learning conditions are taken into account.
The recommendation would also hopefully modify teachers attitude to teaching and would provide them with the enthusiasm to make the best use of the available materials by themselves so as to fulfill their roles as expert communicators.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the study
This study is to find out availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Primary School. This study is only concerned with availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Primary Schools.
To identify the availability instructional material in Wamakko Primary Schools; To examine if the available of instructional materials are adequately used in Wamakko Primary Schools; To determine how often the available instructional material are put to use in Wamakko Primary Schools.; To examine the problems hindering the effective utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Primary Schools.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Accessibility: The ability to access and benefit from some system or entity.
Availability: This means having at hand the required or needed material or services
Utilization: The act of using something or the manner in which something is used.
Instructional: Intended for the purpose of instruction.
Material: This refers to a physical object or as the physical components of something, to relevant facts, jokes or items that are part of a performers routine or the things required to build something or accomplish a task
Instructional Materials: Can be defined as all the resources a teacher uses to help him/her explain or elucidate the topic contents/subject to the learner so that the learners is able to comprehend the topic fully.
School: It is a place where teaching and learning takes place
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