EFFECT OF EGGSHELL AS A FILLER ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM – Complete project material


ABSTRACT

Traditionally, calcium carbonate is used as a filler in foam industries and studies have shown that egg-shell contains about 94 % calcium carbonate. The effect of egg-shell in flexible polyurethane foam was studied in this work. Foam with no filler was produced as a control. The egg-shell was beneficiated, characterized and used as filler in flexible polyurethane foam production with varying loads from 5w% to 15 w% at 2.5 w% interval. The effect of various particle sizes on the egg-shell was also studied. Conventional calcium carbonate was also used and the result compared against the produced egg-shell filled foam samples. The produced samples were characterized for compression set, indentation hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, heat ageing elongation and tensile strength, support factor and density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to study the foam‟s morphology. The result of beneficiation showed that the amount of CaCO3 increased by 1.355 % after beneficiating the egg-shell. The results indicated that 45 µm particle size egg-shell was better in most of the properties than other particle sizes tested, with values closest to the control. The highest elongation, tensile strength before and after heat ageing were obtained at 5 wt% of egg-shell. The results also showed that the egg-shell filled foams at 63 µm particle size and 5 wt% loading for tensile strength and elongation before and after heat ageing tests were higher than calcium carbonate filled foam by 1.04 %, 2.66 kN/m2, 0.82 % and 2.22 kN/m2, respectively. In all cases, the density increase with increase in filler loading and particle size. The SEM analysis showed that cell openings of the produced filled foams decreased as particle size and filler content were increased.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

A brief review of the research work is given in this chapter.

1.1 Background of the Study

Solid foam is formed when gas is blown through solidifying plastic. Depending on its ability to retain original shape after compression, it can be classified as either flexible or rigid, Isa et al.,(2012). The foam can either be closed or open cell foams. In closed cell foams, the foam cellsare isolated from each other while the open cell foams are made up of broken cell walls, Babalola and Dominic, (2012).

Flexible polyurethane (PU) foam is one of the major productions from urethane material. Flexible polyurethane foams are used as cushioning material for automotive seat, mattress, furniture, and in packaging etc. According to Klempner and Sendijarevic (2004), flexible polyurethane material has become such widely usedbecause of its excellent light weight, strength to weight ratio performance and the most important is, it offers degree of comfort, protection and utility not matched by other single materials. This usefulness prompts the increase in the prices of polyurethane products consistently over the years which in turn necessitated the incorporation of variety of fillers into foam samples.

Also, the prices of flexible polyurethane foams are becoming increasingly high due to the high cost of raw materials (Onuegbuet al., 2010). The raw materials are mostly liquid reagents and chemicals obtained from petrochemicals and agro-products. The raw materials needed for the production of flexible polyether foam include polyol poly isocyanate, blowing agents, catalysts surfactants and additive such as fillers (Onuegbuet al., 2005).

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT»

Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 8111770269, 08111770269 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected] Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research. You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways: 1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic. 2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced). 3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase). 4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly). Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright.


Purchase Detail

Hello, we’re glad you stopped by, you can download the complete project materials to this project with Abstract, Chapters 1 – 5, References and Appendix (Questionaire, Charts, etc) for N4000 ($15) only, To pay with Paypal, Bitcoin or Ethereum; please click here to chat us up via Whatsapp.
You can also call 08111770269 or +2348059541956 to place an order or use the whatsapp button below to chat us up.
Bank details are stated below.

Bank: UBA
Account No: 1021412898
Account Name: Starnet Innovations Limited

The Blazingprojects Mobile App



Download and install the Blazingprojects Mobile App from Google Play to enjoy over 50,000 project topics and materials from 73 departments, completely offline (no internet needed) with the project topics updated Monthly, click here to install.

0/5 (0 Reviews)

Steven

Read Previous

THE CONCEPTS OF SACRIFICE IN THE IGBO LAND TRADITIONAL RELIGION – complete project material

Read Next

Antimalarial Drug Prescribing Practice In Pediatrics In A University Teaching Hospital – complete project material

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Need Help? Chat with us
%d bloggers like this: