Factors Affecting Community Participation In Community Development Programmes In Gombe State, Nigeria – complete project material


A survey research design was adopted for this study on factors affecting participation in community development in Gombe state, Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study and four hypotheses were formulated tested at (0.05) level of significance. The study was conducted in all eleven local government area of Gombe state. The population 2103 and sample for the study was made up of 330 registered members of community development association in Gombe state. A questionnaire titled factors affecting community participation in community development programmes in Gombe state, (FACPCDP) Nigeria consisting of 40 items was structured based on the factors affecting community participation, Respondents reaction range from very high extant, high extant, low extant and very low extant. The internal consistency of the instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.92 cronbach alpha  308 questionnaires  were returned for analysis, which was  98% return rate Data collected were analyzed using means of 2.50 of high extent acceptability  and t –test statistics, (0.05) level of significance. The study has implications for creating awareness on questioner form and poor road network, therefore recommendations were made about community participation and also regular workshops and seminars were to be made on the importance of community participation.




Title Page                                                                                                                                   i

Approval Page                                                                                                                           ii

Certification                                                                                                                              iii

Dedication                                                                                                                                 iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                   v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                      vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                     viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                  1

Background to the Study                                                                                1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                                          6

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                                 7

Significance of the Study                                                                                                          7

Research Questions                                                                                                                   8

Hypotheses                                                                                                                                8

Scope of the Study                                                                                                                    9

CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                       10

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                       10

Concept of Community                                                                                                             10

Concept of Development                                                                                                          11

Concept of Community Development                                                                                      12

Concept of Community Participation                                                                                       20

Community Participation in Community Development Programme                                         22

Theoretical Framework                                                                                                          36

Theory of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA)                                                                                  36

Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility                                                                               37

Review of Empirical Studies                                                                                                   38

Summary of Literature Review                                                                                             43

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                   45

Research Design                                                                                                                        45

Area of the Study                                                                                                                      45

Population of the Study                                                                                                            46

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                              46

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                                 46

Validation of Instrument                                                                                                           47

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                                     47

Method of Data Collection                                                                                                       47

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                          48

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS                                                                                             49

Research Question One                                                                                                             49

Research Question Two                                                                                                            51

Research Question Three                                                                                                           53

Research Question Four                                                                                                            55

Hypothesis One                                                                                                                         56

HypothesisTwo                                                                                                                         58

Hypothesis Three                                                                                                                       60

Hypothesis Four                                                                                                                        62

Summary of Findings                                                                                                                63


Summary                                                                                                                                   65

Discussion                                                                                                                                 65

Conclusion                                                                                                                                 68

Implication of the Study                                                                                                           68

Recommendations                                                                                                                     69

Limitation of the Study                                                                                                             69

Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                                                 70

References                                                                                                                                71


Appendix A: Population of the Study                                                                                      76

Appendix B: Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                         77

Appendix C: Questionnaire                                                                                                       78

Appendix D: Reliability Test                                                                                                    83

Appendix E: Descriptive Analysis                                                                                            91





Background of the Study

Development in any community is determined by the level of involvement of the immediate citizenry who come together as a community to achieve common goals. Community development involves bringing people together with the common goal of improving their social, economic, political, educational and cultural wellbeing for a better livinglivelihood. Thus, peoples’ participation is an indispensable element for effective community development. People’s participation cannot be dispensed within development efforts(Mohammad, 2010).Hence people’s participation in community development is gaining momentum in the process of human empowerment and development. Participation, as the term implies is considered as a central role in the execution of community development programme.

Participation is a process of equitable and active involvement of all stakeholders in the formulation of development policies and strategies and in the analysis, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development activities. (Food Agricultural Organization, FAO, 2007). Participation is a process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and take decisions in controlling resources which affect them (World Bank, 2003). Therefore by making the people aware of the programme, awareness is created. Awareness is a process of informing people about a particular project that is taking place in a community.Also awareness is enlightening people about what is happening in the community on development, work, or a process of informing people about recent happenings in the community. This information passes through the use of mass media, as a center to share and control initiatives. Active participation also places people at the center to the attainment and sharing of control over development initiatives as well as in making decision as regards to the resources which affect them (Allen, 2000). Participation includes people involvement in decision making processes, inimplementing programmes;sharingthe benefits of theprogramme and their involvement in efforts to asses and evaluate such programmes. Participation involves the use of a service, contribution of money, material and labor through attendance or consultation on a particular issue, implementing of delegated power in real decision making at every stage, identification of problems, implementation and evolution committee members.

Community participation as Pan (2011) reported is an active process by which the beneficiary or client groups influence the direction and execution of a development project with a view to enhancing their wellbeing in terms of income, personal growth, self-reliance or other values they cherish.Nzeh (2012) stated that participationisa process of empowerment of the deprived and the excluded. This view is based on the recognition of differences in political and economic power among different social groups and classes. Participation in this sense necessitates the creation of organization which is democratically independent and self-reliant (Ajaji and Otuya, 2006). In other words,participation is a process where local people provide input and cooperate or collaborate with planners and developers to ensure acceptable and successful outcome and or where by initiative can be implemented more effectively. Participation can also be regarded as a goal in itself. Effective participation process help people acquire knowledge, skills and experiences which are important for change.  Therefore, community participation is a way throughwhich the efforts of people of different class and background are linked with those of government authorities to improve the social, economic and cultural conditions of the communities in a particular location to integrate these communities into the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.  Community development is fundamentally concerned with decision-making processes affecting users, community-based agencies and services. It is premised on a ‘bottom-up’ approach, which means enhancing the capacity of communities to determine goals and to pursue issues of importance to them, and to make decisions affecting, Community embrace members of particular community of interest and place, as well as those statutory, voluntary or private community-based agencies and entities with a concern to improve quality of life and to address disadvantage in those areas.Bomber, Owens, Schofeld, and Ghats (2010) reported that in order to achieve development in the community, community members need to be involved directly in the process of development. Participation entails involving in decision making, to choose a community project, plan, implement, manage, monitor and control.

Community development can be described as a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of government authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities that would lead to the integration of those communities into life of a nation and enable them to contribute fully to nation’s progress (United Nations, 2013).Community development is an approach that can lead to the attainment of a desired change through mobilization of people which entails self-help and participation of people in their own initiatives (Anyauwu, 2004).Furthermore, community development is a method used to secure active participation and cooperation of people in order to raise their standard of living. To that effect, community participation in community development encompasses helping community members understand each other’s issues, needs and potential contributions on working and learning together to find creative ways of resolving conflict and achieving mutually beneficial solutions. Bomberet al. (2009) confirmed that the most effective community development programmes around the world are carried out through the involvement of multiple partners in delivering the programme activities at the neighborhood level.

Community development, as a programme, lays emphasis on specific activities, such as health care system, agricultural system, industry, and recreation. Community development is a programme which is intended to highlight the activities undertaken in the process of development. Ife (2002) maintains that it is a programme that community development comes in to contact with subject matter specialties such as health care experts, welfare workers, agricultural system, industry and recreation. This means that people should be encouraged to understand the issues that are important to their neighborhoods and act in unison to keep the community strong and healthy. It is also apparent that members of an active participatory community provide inputs on educational and infrastructural development of their immediate environment. Therefore, community participation is deeply inherent in the concept of community development which enjoins that whatever is done to improve the welfare of the people must endeavor to elicit the enthusiasm and whole hearted participation of such people Nnoll,Ajaji and Smith, (2011) notes that public involvement results in better decisions.  Whole community decision that involves citizen is more likely to be accepted to the local people. This idea portrays community development in its true light as a cooperative of partnership in progress.

Certainly, many communities in Nigeria find it difficult to enjoy basic welfare facilities. Local and organized efforts have become necessary, for the communities in order to enhance the realization of community development goals, especially where government patronage was not easy to get all the time whereas organized development efforts through community development programme have become popular today.Dan (2011) stated that situation where community bodies are mere small organization operating within a larger social environment that is plagued with poverty, low standard of living and economic vagaries. Hence they may lack the basic economic resources to initiate or sustain project. There is limit to which the communities can effectively participate under such poor economic condition.

Here, in the area under study, there are some factors among which are socio-cultural factor, economic factor, political factor and lack of enlightenment which hinders the smooth implementation of community development programme. Scharefer (2002) stated that culture as a concept has different contextual meaning from different educators. In sociological and anthropological perspective, culture refers to the society and all that make it to exist. The author further defines culture as the totality of socially transmitted behaviors.Akubue (2008)defined culture as the sum total of the way in which human being lives are transmitted from generation to generation by learning.Okolo, (2001) says that culture as an aspect of human behavior that are transmitted to members of a society, which include knowledge, belief,art and habits acquired by man as a full –fledged member of society

Community efforts have been carried out to tackle local problems in different localities with external support or intervention. This has been a common practice long before the colonial rule. Abegunde (2009) stressed that during the colonial period and after independence, government at different levels supported communities to develop their locality in different ways, and for many years emphasis was on cooperation and self-help among the people. Zaden, (2010) stated that Community development programme is influenced by the ability of major stakeholders to mobilize people for participation. Generally, people who are informed about a community issue and are interested in resolving it, feel that they can be more effective in working with groups.

Therefore, the researcher developed interest to determine the factors affecting community participation in community development programme in the study area. So members participation is deeply embedded in the art of taking part or getting involved in some activities where impact on the contribution of resources in the delivery of services within the community setting. Participant refers to where citizens and other groups interested or affected. No community, group or even families are truly homogeneous, real differences exist in terms of gender, economic status, ethnicity, languages;(Hausa, Fulani,Waja,Tangale,Bolewaand Pow) on structure, age,religious believes,participatory supports tend to ignore these differences and complexities of communities thatremains homogenous. The underlying problems in the communities are not properly examined and analyzed. This promoted the search for factors affecting community participation in Community Developmentprograms in Gombe State.

Statement of the problem

In Nigerian society today, most people don’t want to participate in community development programme due to some negative factors such as cultural, socio- economic, awareness, planning, and religions among others. But empowering people to become aware of the importance of community participation will help to eliminate the inhibiting factors.  Government is expected to provide basic need such as good drinking water, good road, health care delivery system, better agricultural and literacy education including effective security of lives and property. This has not been obtainable. Therefore people must come together as a social unit to develop their community by removing or doing away with their differences that serve as great factors that affect community participation in community development.

Gombe state government has a great task of providing people with necessary company tool for community participation in order to achieve community development programme. Community participation  in the country come in with the intention of making communities to develop and to supplement government effort in providing basic human need to the people. The objective of community development programme is to achieve social, economic, political emancipation and progress of our communities. It is the fact that the process of community development programme cannot be sustained without people`s participation which need effective mobilization of people toward community participation in order to achieve community development.

However, it is doubtful whether all those factors actually affect community participation in community development programme in Gombe state. Also it is very disheartening to observe that there is no available record with the state government to show that assessment has been carried out on the factors affecting community participation in community development programme. It is against this background that the researcher intended to carry out a study on the factors affecting community participation in community development programmes in Gombe state.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the factors affecting community participation in community development programmes in Gombe state. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the following.

  1. The extent to which awareness creation affects community participation in community development programmes in Gombe state.
  2. The extent to which planning affects community participation in community development programmes in Gombe state.
  3. The extent to which poor socio economic statusaffects people participation in community development programmes in Gombe state.
  4. The extent to which cultural practices affectspeople’s participation in community development programmes in Gombe State.

Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be beneficial to policy makers, community leaders, community development officials, administrators, government and non-governmental organizations as well as other researchers.

The findings of the study will be beneficialto policy makers because they will use the recommendations of the study to develop policy, rule and regulation.

The findings of the study will be beneficial to community leaders. The study will reveal the weakness in community participation so that the community leaders will correct theirerrors

The findings of the study will be beneficial to community development officials who will learn how to formulate and improve upon civil participation.

The findings of the study will help theAdministrators to identify the methods and media of transmitting and disseminating information to their targeted subjects.

The findings of the studywill be beneficial to government and nongovernmental organizationsfor they will use the recommendations of the study to identify community problems for possible improvement.

The findings of the study will be beneficial to the researchers or it will give room for further studies on community participation.

The findings of the study will be beneficial to the society at large, for when the community participation and community development is integrated well, there will be peaceful coexistence.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.They are as follows:

  1. To what extent does awareness creation affect community participation in community development Programmes in Gombe state?
  2. To what extent does programme planning affects community participation in community development Programmes in Gombe state?
  3. To what extent does socio economic status of people affect community participation incommunity development programme in Gombe State?
  4. To what extent does a cultural practice affect people participation in community development programme in Gombe State?



The following Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and to be tested at 0. 05 level of significances

Ho1   There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the male and female respondents on extent to which awareness creation affects community participations in community development programme in Gombe state.

Ho2    There is no significant difference between male and female mean responses on extent of community participation in planning of community development programme has affected community development programme in Gombe state.

Ho3    There are no significant difference between the mean responses of lowly educated and the highly educated on the effect of community development programme in Gombe state.

Ho4    There is no significant difference between the mean responsesof lowly educated and the highly educated on the extent of cultural practice on the effect of participation in community development programme in Gombe state.

Scope of the Study

This study was conducted in all the local governments of Gombe  state namely Akko, Balanga, Biliri, Dukku, Funakaye, Gombe, Kaltungo, Kwami, Yamaltu deba, Nafada, and Shongom. The study focused on the only registered members of community development associations. It was restricted to the factors affecting community participation in community development program in Gombe State,such as cultural, political, educational, economical, religious, and so on.



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