Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils margarine were tested for free fatty acid and Iodine value with the following results 0.27,0.84, 1.68 Free Fatty Acid, 17.77, 20.30, 21.57 Iodine value for PKO, PCO and PCM margarine respectively. These products were assessed organoleptically using 9 – point hedoic scale o both samples and the standard were found to be significantly different at 5% level of probability.
There was however no significant difference in taste and colour at the same level of significance. Production of margarine using these three blends of oils should be encouraged to add to the varieties of margarine in the market.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Fats and Oils
2.1.2 Importance of Fats and Oils
2.1.3 Fats as Food
2.1.4 Essential Fatty Acids
2.1.5 Classification of Fats and Oils
2.1.6 Composition of Seed Oils
2.1.7 Tropical Oil Seeds
2.2.0 Palm Kernel, Coconut and Melon
2.2.3 General Methods of Extracting Seed Oils
2.2.4 Refining and Processing of Seed Oils
2.2.6 Storage of Processed Oil
2.2.8 Functions of Additives Used
2.2.9 Components Contributing Flavour and Colour
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Source of Material
3.2.1 Refining Procedure
3.3 Determination of the Specific Gravity
3.3.1 Determination of Yield
3.3.2 Determination of Moisture Content
3.4 Method of Chemical Analysis on the Oils
3.4.1 Provide Value Determination
3.4.2 Free Fatty Determination
3.4.3 Determination of Iodine Value
3.5.0 Recipe for the Product
3.6.0 Production of Margarine
3.7.0 Methods of Analysis of Margarine
3.8.0 Sensory Evaluation
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: Classification of Vegetable Oils.
TABLE 2: Chemical Composition of Palm Kernel Oil
TABLE 4: Formulation of Samples
TABLE 5: Shows the Physical Analysis of the Oils
TABLE 6: Chemical Analysis of the Oils
TABLE 7: Chemical Analysis of the Margarine Samples
TABLE 8: L.S.D. Sensory Evaluation on the Margarine
LIST OF FLOW CHART
FLOW CHART 1: Refining Process of Oil
FLOW CHART 2: Production Chart
FLOW CHART 3: Refining of Crude Oil
FLOW CHART 4: Production of Margarine
Margarine, a butter substitute made originally from other animal fats, but nowadays exclusively from vegetable oils, like homogenization and pasteurization is a reach innovation. Margarine is made from water in oilemulsion because margarine is oilemulsion. Today it is a manufactured imitation of butter made by mixing a variety of fats that may include whale oil or vegetable oils, hydrogenated to an appropriates degree. Stabilize, an oil soluble dye and a proportion of soured skimmed milk to supply flavour.
Like its model, margarine is about 80% fat, 20% water and solids. It is flavoured, coloured ad fortified with vitamin A and sometimes D to match butters nutritional contribution. Single oil or a blend may be used. During World War 1, coconut oil was favoured, in the thirties, it was cottonseed, and in the fifties, soy. Today, soy and corn oils predominate. The raw oil is pressed from the seeds, purified, hydrogenated, them fortified and coloured, either with a synthetic carotene or with annatto, a pigment extracted from a tropical seed. The water phase is usually reconstituted or skim milk that is cultured with lactic bacteria to produce a stronger flavour although pure diacetyl, the compound most responsible for the flavour of butter, is also used. Emulsifiers such as lecithin help disperse the water phase evenly throughout the oil, salt and preservatives are also commonly added. The mixture of oil and water is them heated, blended, and cooled. The softer tub margarines are made with less hydrogenated, more liquid oils than other types of margarines.
In 1860s French Emperor Louis Napoleon III offered a prize to anyone who could make satisfactory substitutes for buffer, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes.
French chemist Hippolyte Mege-Mouriezi invented a substance he called oleomargarine, which become, in shortened form, the trade name margarine and is now the generic term for a wide range of broadly similar edible oils. It is sometimes shortened to oleoleomargarine which was made by taking clarified beef fat, extracting the liquid portion under pressure, and then allowing it to solidify. When combined with butyrins and water, it made a cheap and more – or – less palatable butter substitute. Sold as margarine or under any of a host of other trade names, butter substitutes soon became big business but too late to help Mege-Mouriez. Although he expanded his initial manufacturing operation from France to the United States in 1873, he had little commercial success. By the end of the decade, however, artificial butters were on sale in both the old World and the new.
Margarine is naturally white or almost white; by forbidding the addition of artificial colouring agents, legislators found that they could keep margarine off kitchen tables. The bans became common place around the world and would endure for almost 100 years. It did not become legal to sell coloured margarine. In Australia, for example, until the 1960s.
In the mean time, margarine manufactures had made changes. Modern margarine can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats, and is often mixed with skim milk, salt and emulsifiers. Liquid fats are transformed into suitable substrates by the chemical process of hydrogenation, which renders them solid at room temperature. Many popular table spreads today are blends of margarine and butter. Something that was long illegal in the United States and Australia and no doubt parts of the world too and are designed to combine and the lower cost and easy – spreading of artificial butter with the taste of the real thing.
Three main types of margarine are common:
Hard, generally uncoloured margarine for cooking or baking, which contains a high proportion of animal fat. “Traditional” margarines for such use as spreading on toast, which contain a relatively high percentage of saturated fats and made from either animal or vegetable oils. Margarines high in mono – poly – unsaturated fats, which are made from safflower, sunflower soybean, cottonseed, or olive oil.
Margarine, particularly polyunsaturated margarine has become a major part of the Western dieted states, for example, in 1930 the average person ate over 8kg of butter a year and just over 1 kg of margarine By the and of the 20th century, an average American ate just under 2kg of butter and bearly 4kg of margarine.
Based on the fact that margarine can be obtained from vegetable fat and animal fat, this study to produce margarine from palm kernel melon $ coconut oils bland id to investigate if the product would be preferred over the sample in the market by the consumers. The odour and taste in the oils would be removed during processing for it not to affect the sample of margarine.
Physical, chemical and sensory evaluation test would be employed to investigate the quality. With the results we will defer mine the degree of acceptance of the proudly by the consumers.
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